Padre Pio (1887-1968) was a Capuchin Friar who used his vocation to grow in holiness and virtue while continually leading others to the same growth in holiness.  He had many charisms which included bilocation, communication with angels, and discernment of spirits.  He had a particular charism of healing which will be the focus of this paper. Pio also had a mystical prayer life which illuminated his closeness and unity with God and often led to ecstasies.  Additionally, Padre Pio was gifted with the stigmata which assisted him both in his healing ministries as well as in deepening the efforts of his prayer. He lived his vocation fully, motivated by love of God and love of neighbor, and maintained a primary focus on the salvation of souls for the greater glory of God.[1]  This paper seeks to examine the spiritual life of Padre Pio with regard to his prayer life and charisms.


Padre Pio considered prayer to be the center of his daily life and the most important thing he could do as it brought him into union and intimacy with God.[2]  He made it a point to continually think of God and doing so brought him a sense of peace and tranquility in his soul.[3]  He also encouraged others to pray often as well, forming prayer groups and writing letters to his spiritual children.  Pope Francis addressed the prayer groups of Padre Pio in February of 2016 and quoted Padre Pio as often saying “prayer is the greatest weapon we have, a key that opens the heart of God”.[4]

Padre Pio was a prolific spiritual director through written correspondence as well as in person.  Prayer was at the heart of all of his spiritual direction.  He formed many prayer groups which he called “nurseries of faith, the fertile soil of love”.  He rightfully considered prayer a mission saying, it is a “force which moves the world.[5]  When viewed in this way, it is clear to see why prayer is not simply asking for things from God, rather it is intense relationship with God for the sake of the entire world.  When prayer is done well, it is a spiritual work of mercy.[6]

While vocal prayer and conversation with God was important, Pio saw the value of meditative prayer and wanted to share it with others in order that they might grow in their prayer life.  He wrote the extremely powerful and moving piece The Agony of Jesus: A Meditation on Our Lord’s Agony in the Garden as an aid in helping those to meditate on one specific mystery of the Christ.  He begins the mediation by imploring Jesus to allow him to penetrate His heart and allow him a glimpse of the pain He experienced in His agony to that he might unite himself to his Lord.[7]  He reflects on the anxiety Jesus felt as he prayed in the garden.[8]  He also reflects on the Apostles who fell asleep while he prayed, ambivalent to their friend’s anguish.[9]  Pio’s words draw one into a reflection on how he too seems indifferent to Christ’s agony as he allows the temptation of sin make him lazy.  He makes Jesus relatable to the reader of the meditation as he reflects on how Jesus pleads with His Father to “take this chalice from me” but accepts the Father’s will as His prayer goes unanswered.[10]  A reader experiencing a lack of consolation in his own prayer life can see that even Jesus did not receive consolation in His own agony and one can be more inspired to follow His example and submit to the will of the Father.

As is consistent with any authentic Christian spirituality, Padre Pio had a profound devotion to the Blessed Mother.  In May of 1999, his friend John Paul II called to mind Pio’s devotion to Mary saying it “was apparent in every aspect of his life: in his words and writings, in his teaching and in the advice he gave to his many spiritual children.”[11]  Pio, who had a mystical relationship with angels, knew very well that even they were in the service of Mary, Queen of the Angels and everything they did for him was only at her bidding.[12]  He said, “Our Lady never refuses me a grace through the recitation of the Rosary” rightfully recognizing her as the Mediatrix of All Graces.[13]  On his death bed, some of his last thoughts were of Mary as he said, “Love Our Lady and help others to love her. Always recite the Rosary.”[14]

In honor of Mary, Padre Pio composed another meditation to assist the faithful in dwelling upon the mystery of the Immaculate Conception.  Within the context of a meditation on her Immaculate Conception, he cannot avoid the conclusion that she is the Co-Redemptrix saying, “He Whom she was to carry in her womb was the Son of God participating with the Father and the Holy Spirit in the glory of her conception.”[15]  Further acknowledging her status as Co-Redeemer, he refers to the Immaculate Conception as “the first step in our salvation”.[16]  Padre Pio’s deep devotion to the Blessed Mother was exemplified by his frequent meditations upon her and in his prayer life.  He made it a point to implore others to do the same.

Due to the intimate nature of his union with God, and as a result of his own efforts in conscious vocal, mental, and meditative prayer, Padre Pio was granted the gift of achieving a deeper union with God in the form of mystical prayer.  One of the hallmarks of mystical prayer is that it occurs only through the Holy Spirit as the prime mover and through no human effort.  Pio confirms this when he describes what happens to him during his ecstasies, “all this arises, not from my own mental efforts or preparation, but from an internal flame and from a love [poured into the soul from without] so powerful that if God did not quickly come to my aid, I would be consumed!”[17]  One of his fellow friars, Padre Agostino, recalled that Pio went into ecstasy two to three times per day and while in it he was able to communicate with Jesus, Mary, and his guardian angel.  As was also witnessed and reported, Pio was tormented by Satan and demons either immediately before or after each ecstasy.[18]  The demons would tempt him, once with a vision of dancing naked women, and torment him in an effort to separate him from Jesus as they were undoubtedly most threatened by a man so deeply imbued with God.[19]  Despite the attacks, Pio found his strength in his trust in Jesus and would cry out to Him, “I love You very much.  I want to be all Yours.”[20]  The witnesses state that upon coming out of an ecstasy, Pio would once again become aware of his surroundings, another indication that he was not the primary mover in the experience.[21]

During a confession, a man witnessed Padre Pio enter into a state of ecstasy.  He described him as becoming radiant with an interior light and that the words of absolution were coming straight from God himself on the lips of the Capuchin.  He further said, “I found myself faced with the divine Ego.  In [Pio] alone I found no trace of the human ego.”[22]  He acknowledged that while he had seen other men imbued with God, Pio was different in that he “is nothing but an instrument of the divine.  He has reached the goal of Union.”[23]  This is precisely the goal of all mystical prayer.

Despite his closeness to God, Padre Pio sometimes experienced what he called a “great aridity of spirit” which is quite common among the great Saints.[24]  He compares the experience to a poor little shepherd being invited to a king’s palace and seeing numerous beautiful things he has never seen before.  Then, when he leaves, he is unable to communicate what he has seen, so instead remains silent.[25]  Padre Pio identified these moments as “passive purgation” and he followed the same sort of spiritual development that others have described during these times.[26]  During his times of purgation, he could feel the Father desiring him to let go of attachment to earthly comforts and to allow people of the earth to mistreat him so that he could understand how earthly love paled in comparison to heavenly love.  He would then draw closer to God and it was then that God would finally smile upon him.[27]  Pio, seeing the benefit of spiritual purgation said, “Spiritual fevers, like physical ones, are usually followed by a variety of sensations that, far from harming the sick person, are useful to him for various reasons: in this case because they dispel the lingering malefic humours that caused the illness.”[28]

As evidenced by the aridity and purgation experienced by the Saints, the fruit of prayer is not consolation.  Rather, the fruit of an authentic prayer life is the growth of virtue and holiness.  Padre Pio personally exemplified many virtues and made every effort to encourage the development of virtue in others.  In December of 1997, the decree on the heroic virtue of Padre Pio was promulgated by John Paul II for the canonization of the Saint.  The document identifies the areas of supernatural virtue in which Padre Pio shone brightly.  He excelled in charity as he tended to the needs of those suffering and in pain as he founded the Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza (House for the Relief of Suffering).  He exemplified a life of tremendous faith as he spent the majority of his time in prayer.  He was a model of hope as he encouraged others to love God and to live their lives for him.  As he counseled people in the confessional and in spiritual direction, he reached a high degree of prudence.  Padre Pio treated all with justice as he was concerned for their souls.  In his tremendous suffering, he was particularly overflowing with the virtue of fortitude.  Padre Pio faced many trials in his life, including isolation as his stigmata was investigated as self-inflicted wounds along with other unjust accusations.  Through all his trials, he maintained humility and obedience, always trusting God and his superiors.  Through his frequent acts of mortification, he gained the virtue of temperance.  He lived an exemplary life of poverty as he detached from self, earthly goods, comfort, and personal glory, instead giving all over for the glory of God.  Finally, Pio valued chastity always remaining modest in his behavior.[29]

In addition to growing in virtue himself, Pio’s concern for all souls compelled him to encourage others to strive for an increase of virtue in themselves.  He emphasized that the greatest virtue needed to obtain all other virtues is the virtue of patience.[30]  It is most important to be patient with others, but more importantly with oneself in the pursuit of holiness.  As another example, in a letter to one of his spiritual daughters, Annita Rodote, regarding behavior in the Mass and elsewhere, he implores her “Above all, be extremely modest in everything, as this is the virtue which, more than any other, reveals the affections of the heart.”[31]  He goes on to expound saying modesty applies to speech, laughter, and even walking because the interior heart is connected to the outer presentation of the body.  He further advises Annita to be “humble of heart, circumspect in words, prudent in your resolutions.”[32]

Padre Pio’s spirituality also represented the ecclesiology involved in Christian spirituality.  The members of the Body of Christ are united under the Head.  As a body, it is impossible for the activities of one member to not affect another member.  Therefore, anything done for the good of one member is necessarily done for the good of the entire body.  Pio combined his prayers with fasting so as to make them more efficacious to the benefit of all.  He fasted so fervently his health suffered and at one pointed he ate nothing but the Holy Eucharist for 21 days.[33]  Theologically speaking, this 21-day period of prayer and extreme fasting had an efficacious benefit to the Body of Christ at large.

Physical Healing

Padre Pio was known for having the gift of healing and many people came to him for help with their physical ailments or for their loved ones.  He had a fondness for the sick and felt great compassion for them because in each one he saw the suffering Jesus.[34]  Through his intercessory prayer, many miracles of healing occurred.

There was a girl named Gemma Di Giorgi who was born without pupils and as a result was blind from birth.  Many doctors examined her, but it was determined that nothing could be done for her medically.[35]  A family member was a nun and knew of Padre Pio’s gift and wrote a letter to him imploring his help.[36]  Pio came to her in a dream acknowledging the strength of the prayers being prayed for the girl and promised to add his intercessory prayer.[37]  Gemma and her grandmother then traveled to where Padre Pio was located at the time, San Giovanni Rotondo, where she received the sacrament of reconciliation from him.  Despite forgetting to ask for healing, Pio knew to make a cross on each of the girl’s eyes.  Following confession, he was also able to give her her first communion.[38]  After returning home, still not having pupils, Gemma began to see.  She was examined by a doctor and it was confirmed that she was able to see.[39]  Whenever credit was given to Padre Pio for this miraculous healing, he would say “Don’t bring me into this, my good people.  It was not I, it was the Madonna.”[40]  This response is truly humble and gives all glory and honor where it is due.  Mary, the mediatrix of all graces, responded to Pio’s prayers and granted healing as she saw fit.

Another notable healing involved Pope John Paul II before he was pope.  Karol Wojtyla enjoyed a very close relationship with a family.[41]  The wife and mother, Wanda, was diagnosed with a cancerous intestinal tumor and she had a poor prognosis.[42]  Karol asked everyone he knew to pray for Wanda, but when he heard about the Capuchin who possessed the wounds of Christ, he decided to visit him.[43]  After spending some time with Pio, he returned to Rome without yet asking for intercessory prayer.  However, when news regarding Wanda became worse, he wrote a letter to Pio.  The letter was short and to the point and did not include many details about the ailment or Wanda’s relationship to Karol.  It simply asked for intercessory prayer.[44]  Soon thereafter, Wanda was completely healed from her cancer.  Five years later, Wanda attended a Mass said by Padre Pio and despite never having seen her before, he recognized her, smiled, and said “Now are you all right?”.[45]

When dealing with matters of physical illness, Pio always acknowledged that the power lay in God’s hands and reinforced the role of prayer in asking for the exercise of that power.  During an epidemic of the Spanish influenza, some of Padre Pio’s spiritual daughters anxiously approached him asking him to protect them from the flu.  His response to them was to entrust themselves to the Blessed Virgin and to avoid sin and they would be protected.  Only a few of the women contracted the illness, but none died due to the intercession of Mary.[46]  These situations all underscore the continual theme in Padre Pio’s advice and spiritual direction to “pray and trust”.

So great was Padre Pio’s love for the sick and suffering, he set out to establish a hospital after World War II.[47]  Despite his own physical suffering, he worked tirelessly to raise money for the hospital, organizing fundraising events and obtaining donation.[48]  Although he had already been in the habit of forming prayer groups, he started forming groups directly connected with the hospital, clearly recognizing the deep link between prayer and the work he was doing for the sick.  He stated, “It is time to unite both intentions and actions, to offer Our Lord collective prayers imploring His mercy for a humanity that appears to have forgotten Him.”[49]  This statement is another clear indication of the understanding that no good human work can be achieved without the help and grace of God.  Further illustrating the link between prayer and healing, Padre Pio implored the doctors of the hospital, “Bring God to the sick.  It will be more valuable than any other treatment…you have the mission of curing the sick, but, if at the patient’s bedside you do not bring the warmth of loving care, I fear that medicine will not be of much use.”[50]  Doctors should use their vocations for holiness and rely on God in all they do as doctors.  They should also bring the virtuous spirit of love into their work, perfecting the human work that they do.  Fundamentally, Pio urges people to understand that their actions are nothing without God.

In addition to healing and comforting the ill and suffering, Padre Pio had a goal of helping those who are suffering to benefit from it.  Suffering is a difficult thing to do and without proper formation, one is likely to want to avoid it or complain about it.  He staffed the hospital with physicians and priests that could help a person heal wholly.  He counseled that the patients should have their eyes fixed on God and whatever His will is for their destiny.  He further counseled that loving the crucified Christ enables one to embrace his own sufferings.[51]  Although Padre Pio possessed the gift of healing and God produced miraculous healing through him, he was clear that bodily healing is not always God’s will.  He wanted his patients and staff to understand that suffering enables one to draw closer to God and should, therefore, be embraced.

Spiritual Healing

Pio’s approach to healing the whole person illustrated that spiritual healing is even more important than physical healing.  The proximate goals of any authentic Christianity are sanctification and salvation in order to serve the end goal of giving glory to God.  Whether or not God wills physical healing for someone who is asking, the person will nevertheless eventually die and proceed to his final judgment.  In talking about Padre Pio’s hospital, Pope Francis says, “…while the wounds of the body are treated, the wounds of the soul worsen, and these are slower to detect and often difficult to heal.”[52]  It is for precisely this reason, Pio devoted much of his life to providing a channel of merciful, spiritual healing for souls.

An important aspect of Christian spirituality is regular participation in the Sacraments as they are the gifts from God by which one obtains grace.  Padre Pio lovingly and passionately celebrated the Eucharist and Reconciliation for the express purpose of the salvation of souls.  At his beatification address, Pope John Paul II stated, “And what can be said of his life, an endless spiritual combat, sustained by the weapons of prayer, centered on the sacred daily acts of Confession and Mass?”[53]  He went on to describe Mass as the “heart of his whole day”.[54]  It was Pio’s deepest desire to share in Christ’s agony.  He considered his own suffering as a means to join himself as a means to help others to obtain salvation.  Ultimately, he wanted to help Jesus in his work.[55]

Pio was known to tirelessly hear confessions from “dawn to dusk”.[56]  At his canonization, Pope John Paul II called Padre Pio “a generous dispenser of divine mercy…by the administration of the sacrament of Penance”.[57]  He slept very little spending the majority of his day hearing confessions, only to return to his room to write letters of spiritual direction to his children.[58]  Rather than being resentful or wallowing in his exhaustion, he expressed gratitude for the opportunity to help free his “brethren from the bonds of Satan” and thought the “greatest charity is in snatching souls bound to Satan and winning them for Christ.”[59]  This type of supernatural charity – one strong enough to endure extreme exhaustion and hunger – can only be attributed to the strength of his prayer life as he was supernaturally sustained by God alone.

Padre Pio took the Sacrament of Reconciliation so seriously that it was not uncommon for him to scold people or to send them away without absolution should they seem the least bit insincere.[60]  Confession is not to be considered something trivial or as a mere box to check in order to gain entry into heaven.  It is a true act of purification as given as a gift by God himself.  Very often sending people away would cause them to reflect deeper on their actions resulting in a return to his confessional with more sincere remorse.[61]  Perhaps, while in the moment of being sent away a penitent may have felt as though Padre Pio was being uncharitable, they would come to understand that he was, in fact, being most charitable.

The Holy Mass was the other focus of Padre Pio’s ministry.  In his letter to his spiritual daughter, Annita, he advises her on how to conduct herself during the Mass as it here she encounters God.  He emphasizes the tremendous reverence she should show when she is before the Blessed Sacrament imploring her to “devoutly genuflect” and to kneel before Jesus.[62]  Before the Sacrament, one should speak freely with God (prayer) and completely give oneself over to Him to do with as He wills (trust).  Behavior in Mass should be modest and reverent, including avoiding looking around at the other participants.  He concludes by telling Annita that through her example, others are inspired to glorify the Lord.[63]

The Mass has distinct role in the salvation of the souls in Purgatory.  Offering up the sacrifice of the Eucharist for a particular soul, especially when joining one’s suffering to that sacrifice, can be particularly efficacious for that soul.  There was a time when a soul in purgatory was permitted to ask Padre Pio to offer a Mass for him in order that he might be freed.  He identified himself and the day and location of his death.  Pio promised to offer the next day’s Mass for him.  Afterward, Pio and another friar were able to locate the records of the location and confirmed that a man by that name had, in fact, died there.[64]  This was not the only time Pio was approached by a soul in purgatory and he frequently offered Masses for the poor souls.

While the reception of Sacraments is necessary for salvation, Padre Pio recognized the merciful gift of purgatory as a means of sanctification for those who might be achieving salvation outside of the Catholic Church.  One of his spiritual daughters, Mary Pyle, a Presbyterian convert to Catholicism, was distressed at her mother’s refusal to convert out of concern for her soul.  Pio advised her to not disturb her mother’s peace and to not confuse her, reassuring her that she would be saved because she had faith.  If Pio did not recognize the mercy to be obtained in Purgatory, this would not have been sound advice.  He believed and taught that it was possible for one to convert to the One True Church even after one has died.[65]

Another example of Padre Pio’s faith in the ability to convert after death is found in the story of Julius Fine.  Julius was a devout and faithful Jew when he died, but afterward his daughter became anxious about his fate.  She wrote to Padre Pio, expressing her concern for her father’s soul.  His response was, “Julius Fine is saved, but it is necessary to pray much for him”.  The prayers were necessary for his spiritual healing and sanctification as he waited for his full and complete conversion in purgatory.[66]

In line with the ecclesiology of his spirituality, Padre Pio frequently offered himself and his suffering for the good of the Body.  When Pope Benedict called for the faithful to pray for the end of World War I, Pio offered himself as a sacrifice for the intention.  He said, “No sooner had I made this offering than I felt myself plunged into a terrible prison and heard the crash of the gate behind me.”[67]  This experience sent him into a spiritual aridity in which he received no consolation and felt abandoned by God.  Padre Pio also accepted his stigmata in all of its bleeding and pain by weeping and singing hymns of thanksgiving because it provided him a continual opportunity to join his suffering to Jesus for the good of the Body.[68]  His suffering was so constant, one woman described his demeanor during her confession with him saying, “Every now and then, I saw him lift one of his hands as though to relieve it from some hidden pain, and every now and again he sighed deeply, leaning over to the right, as though to relieve his left side, weary and aching from the wound”.  She added that despite this pain, his facial expression never changed as he listened to confessions.[69]  To suffer like this while continuing stoically in the ministry of healing souls is such a profound example of the supernatural abundance of the virtues of humility, fortitude, and charity.


Padre Pio provides an example of authentic Christian Spirituality that should be admired and imitated according to one’s own vocation.  While one might not have a literal stigmata, one can consider his everyday suffering in life as a spiritual sort of stigmata that can be joined to Christ and offered as a sacrifice for the good of all.  It should be the goal of every Christian to be as united to God in prayer as Padre Pio was to the end that it enables each person to grow in supernatural virtue in order that he might sanctify himself and ultimately give all of the Glory to God.




Concetti, Gino.  Five Maxims for Living a Devout Life.  Baltimore: L’Osservatore Romano, 2004.

Padre Pio da Pietrelcina.  Promulgated December 18, 1997.

Padre Pio de Pietrelcina, O.F.M. Cap..  A Letter from Padre Pio.

Padre Pio of Pietrelcina, O.F.M. Cap..  The Agony of Jesus: A Meditation on our Lord’s Agony in the Garden. Charlotte: TAN Books, 1974.

Padre Pio of Pietrelcina, O.F.M. Cap..  Meditation Prayer on Mary Immaculate.  St Paul: TAN Books, 1974.

Parente, Fr. Allessio O.F.M. Cap.  “Send Me Your Guardian Angel: Padre Pio” 4th Edition.  Barto: National Centre for Padre Pio, 1984.

Pope Francis.  “An Address of his Holiness Pope Francis on the Jubilee for Prayer Groups of Padre Pio”, February 6, 2016.

Pope John Paul II.  “Address to the Pilgrims in Rome for Padre Pio’s Beatification”.  May 3, 1999.

Pope John Paul II.  Homily of John Paul II at the Canonization of St. Pio of Pietrelcina, Capuchin Priest.  June 16, 2002.

Pope John Paul II.  Regina Coeli, May 2, 1999.

Rega, Frank M.  The Truth About Padre Pio’s Stigmata: And Other Wonders of the Saint, 2nd Edition.  Frank M. Rega, 2014.

Ruffin, C. Bernard.  Padre Pio: The True Story. Huntington: Our Sunday Visitor, 1991.



[1] Padre Pio da Pietrelcina.  Dec. 18, 1997.

[2] C. Bernard Ruffin, Padre Pio: The True Story, (Huntington: Our Sunday Visitor, 1991), 103.

[3] Ibid., 103.

[4] Pope Francis.  “An Address of his Holiness Pope Francis on the Jubilee for Prayer Groups of Padre Pio”, February 6, 2016.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Padre Pio of Pietrelcina, O.F.M. Cap., The Agony of Jesus: A Meditation on our Lord’s Agony in the Garden, (Charlotte: TAN Books, 1974), 6.

[8] Ibid., 8.

[9] Ibid., 10.

[10]Ibid., 20.

[11] Pope John Paul II.  Regina Coeli, May 2, 1999., 1

[12] Fr. Allessio Parente, O.F.M. Cap., “Send Me Your Guardian Angel: Padre Pio” 4th Edition, (Barto: National Centre for Padre Pio, 1984), 190.

[13] Ibid., 190

[14] John Paul II, Regina Coeli.

[15] Padre Pio of Pietrelcina, O.F.M. Cap., Meditation Prayer on Mary Immaculate, (St Paul: TAN Books, 1974), 2.

[16] Ibid., 2.

[17] Ruffin, The True Story, 103.

[18] Ibid., 85.

[19] Ibid., 85.

[20] Ibid., 87.

[21] Ibid., 87.

[22] Ibid., 174.

[23] Ibid., 174.

[24] Ibid., 104.

[25] Ibid., 104.

[26] Ibid., 106-107.

[27] Ibid., 108.

[28] Gino Concetti.  Five Maxims for Living a Devout Life, (Baltimore: L’Osservatore Romano, 2004),

[29] Padre Pio da Pietrelcina.  Promulgated December 18, 1997.

[30] Concetti, Five Maxims

[31] Padre Pio de Pietrelcina, O.F.M. Cap..  A Letter from Padre Pio.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Padre Pio of Pietrelcina, O.F.M. Cap., (Meditation Prayer on Mary Immaculate.  St Paul: TAN Books, 1974), 20.

[34] Parente, 175.

[35] Frank Rega, The Truth About Padre Pio’s Stigmata: And Other Wonders of the Saint, 2nd Edition, (Frank M. Rega, 2014), 84.

[36] Ibid., 85.

[37] Ibid., 85.

[38] Ibid., 88.

[39] Ibid., 88.

[40] Ibid., 90.

[41] Ibid., 43.

[42] Ibid., 44.

[43] Ibid., 44.

[44] Ibid., 47-48.

[45] Ibid., 53-54.

[46] Ruffin, The True Story, 152.

[47] Ibid., 280.

[48] Ibid., 283.

[49] Ibid., 284.

[50] Ibid., 286.

[51] Ibid., 287.

[52] Pope Francis.  “An Address of his Holiness Pope Francis on the Jubilee for Prayer Groups of Padre Pio”, February 6, 2016.

[53] Pope John Paul II.  “Address to the Pilgrims in Rome for Padre Pio’s Beatification”.  May 3, 1999., #3.

[54] Ibid., #3.

[55] Ibid., #5.

[56] Ibid., #2.

[57] Pope John Paul II.  Homily of John Paul II at the Canonization of St. Pio of Pietrelcina, Capuchin Priest.  (June 16, 2002., #3.

[58] Ruffin, the True Story, 168.

[59] Ibid., 168.

[60] Ibid., 206.

[61] Ibid., 206.

[62] Padre Pio de Pietrelcina, O.F.M. Cap..  A Letter from Padre Pio.

[63] Padre Pio de Pietrelcina, A Letter from Padre Pio.

[64] Ruffin, The True Story 147.

[65] Rega, The Truth, 69.

[66] Ibid., 75.

[67] Ruffin, The True Story, 151.

[68] Ibid., 155.

[69] Padre Pio of Pietrelcina, O.F.M. Cap..  (Meditation Prayer on Mary Immaculate.  St Paul: TAN Books, 1974), 30.