Mary was given to the Church and to all people by Jesus Christ as a gift in the final act before his death. Wrapped up within this gift are all of the many special qualities associated with motherhood, which Mary exemplifies perfectly. Just as Mary nurtured and cared for Jesus, she nurtures and cares for his flock, The Church. She is a spiritual mother to all people in a very real sense and her children benefit from her perfect mothering. Included within this eternal gift of perfect motherhood to all people is her role as Advocate, established through her queenship, bringing the needs and petitions of the people to her son, Jesus.
An advocate is one who intercedes on behalf of another. The word “advocate” comes from the Latin “advocare” which means “to call to one’s aid”. Advocates are commonly used in the secular world, such as in courts of law and in making medical decisions. The advocate makes certain there is a voice speaking in the best interest of the party for which he/she is advocating. Earthly mothers are often the primary advocates for their children in many situations since their children are not yet capable of advocating for themselves. Mothers discuss issues and make decisions regarding healthcare, education, discipline, amongst most other needs. Children learn to depend on their mothers for all of their needs, trusting them to intercede on their behalf and advocate for their best interests. Of course, while earthly mothers are not perfect and make mistakes in their intercession and advocacy, Mary’s motherhood is perfect because of her Immaculate Conception, so perfect trust in her help is warranted.
In order to understand Mary’s role of Advocate, it is necessary to examine the teaching as it has been developed and taught by the Catholic Church. While all of the seeds of the faith were planted by Jesus and there will be no new revelation, as time passes and situations arise those seeds grow and mature into more developed doctrines. None of the Catholic Church’s teachings about Mary are modern creations, rather they come from the seeds that were planted through divine revelation, both in the Old and New Testaments as well as in Tradition. Through study of Scripture and Tradition, these doctrines are brought forth and then taught to the faithful by the magisterium. An in-depth look at Mary’s role as Advocate will be pursued in alignment with these three pillars.
It is crucial to understand that Mary’s role as Spiritual Mother does not imply equality with her son. To place Mary on equal footing with Jesus in any way would be blasphemous. Mary is always subordinate to Jesus in all Catholic teaching. The honor and respect given to Mary, God’s most perfectly created creature, does not take away from God. Rather, it glorifies him by honoring his will for his mother and her relationship to his children.
The biblical foundation for Mary’s role as Advocate for the people is modeled within the Davidic line of kinds in the Old Testament. In that culture, the Queen Mother was the honored and respected mother of the king. She was bestowed with the title of “Gebirah” which means Great Lady in Hebrew. At a time when kings had many wives – King Solomon had 700 – the Gebirah stood over and above the rest of the queens. Not to be confused as a female king, the Queen Mother’s primary functions were to advise the king, to appoint his successor should anything happen to him and to bring the needs of the people to the king’s attention by advocating for the people. All of the other queens bowed to the king, but the king bowed to the Queen Mother and she sat at his right. In 1 Kings 2:19-20, Bathsheba, the Gebirah, to whom King Solomon pays homage and has seated at his right, brings a petition to her son, King Solomon, on behalf of one of his people. Solomon says to Bathsheba, “Ask it, my mother, for I will not refuse you.”
In order to understand Mary’s role as Advocate for the people of God, she must first be established as the Queen Mother who has the right and honor to bring petitions to her son, Jesus. In the first chapter of his Gospel, Matthew establishes the genealogy of Jesus. This establishes Jesus as a descendant of King David. Mathew calls Jesus “Christ” in chapter 1, verse 1 which means “anointed one” in Hebrew. In the Davidic line of kings, the kings were always described as the “Lord’s anointed” (e.g., 1 Sam. 24:6, 2 Sam. 1:14) So, Matthew clearly places Jesus as the final descendant of the throne of David.
Luke then establishes Mary as the Queen Mother, or Gebirah, in the Annunciation: “Behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall name him Jesus. He will be great and will be called son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give him the throne of David his father, and he will rule over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.” In these verses, Luke, using royal language, clearly establishes Mary as the mother of Jesus and Jesus as a kingly descendent of David. However Jesus’ kingdom, the kingdom of Heaven, is eternal and has no end. Since Mary is the mother of the eternal King, she is the eternal Gebirah.
Again, Mary’s eternal queenship is established at the Visitation when Elizabeth calls Mary “the mother of my Lord” The term Lord was used in the Old Testament to address the king. When Araunah addresses King David in 2 Samuel 24:21 he states, “Why does my lord the king come to his servant?” Elizabeth’s choice of words are also royal and invoke not only the kingship of Jesus, but the establishment of Mary as the Queen Mother. It is notable that this role is established twice in Luke before Jesus is even born. The words of Gabriel and Elizabeth prophesy Jesus as King, Mary as Queen Mother and the eternal kingdom while Jesus is still entirely dependent on his mother. This early proclamation of her role in the kingdom is not insignificant.
Mary finally appears crowned as the eternal queen in Revelations 12:1, “A great sign appeared in the sky, a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars.” This queenly woman goes on to give birth to a male child “destined to rule all the nations” and he defeats the dragon, Satan. While it is true and accurate that this woman can be interpreted to symbolize a body of believers, it is also true that the only woman in human history to actually give birth to a male child who goes on to defeat Satan is Mary. She is the woman crowned with the stars in a literal sense. When read in light of Genesis 3:15, the imagery of the woman in Revelations reflects that of Genesis. “Here in Revelation 12, we find clear points of contact with Genesis 3:15-16 in the fact that both passages involve the ancient serpent in conflict with a woman figure and her offspring, who eventually will overcome the serpent.” Scripture begins and ends with the same image of woman, her offspring and a serpent, reinforcing the roles of the players in salvation history.
The first example where Mary intercedes for the needs of the people and advocates for them to her son is at the Wedding at Cana in John 2:1-5. These five verses in the Gospel of John are extremely rich in describing Mary’s role in the lives of Jesus’ people. Mary is named first in the attendees of the wedding. It is the only time in Scripture when she is mentioned before Jesus, indicating that the presence of Jesus and his disciples as guests at the wedding is due entirely to Mary being invited. So, among the listed guests, she has the place of honor. When Mary notices the wine has run dry, she advocates on behalf of the couple and brings their need to Jesus. Just as Bathsheba brings a request to Solomon in 1 Kings, so too does Mary bring the request to her son.
It is often said by those who do not understand the role of Mary’s spiritual motherhood in the Church that people can bring their needs directly to Jesus and that there is no need for an intercessor or additional advocate. While that is true and there are examples in Scripture of people going directly to Jesus for their needs, the passage in John is important in establishing Mary as an option for intercessory prayer. Jesus could have initiated the miracle of turning the water into wine by his own will, however he does not. It is clear that Mary is the proactive force behind the performance of this miracle on behalf of the couple. Of course, petitions can be brought directly to the feet of Jesus, but they can also be brought to him through his mother who will bring them to him out of perfect love for both her son and his people. Remembering Solomon’s words to Bathsheba, “Ask it, my mother, for I will not refuse you anything.”
Jesus’ response to his mother may, at first, appear to sound as though he is irritated with his mother. Unfortunately, the intent and meaning behind Jesus’ words have been lost in translation. In the Latin Vulgate, the phrase Jesus uses is “Quid mihi est, mulier?” which means “Woman, what to you and to me?” The use of the term “woman” is not derogatory, rather it is meant to identify Mary with the woman of Genesis 3:15, the woman of Calvary in John 19:26, the woman in Galatians 4:4, and the woman in Revelations 12:1. Jesus is connecting the dots to reinforce the identity of the woman. “What to you and to me” also binds them together in asking what the issue has to do with both of them. As God willed, Jesus lived privately with his mother for thirty years and was involved in public ministry for only three. In thirty years an intimate and mutually respectful relationship would have been forged and in the midst of that relationship, there would be healthy discourse. In asking Mary what the lack of wine has to do with them and further responding that his hour has not yet come, he is pointing out that as a result of his performing this first miracle, he will need to begin his public work of redemption which will inevitably lead to Calvary. So in asking her what the lack of wine has to do with either of them, he is asking her if she is ready to embark on the journey that will result in immense pain and suffering for each of them as was prophesied by Simeon in Luke 2:34-35.
Mary’s response is not an answer in words, rather it is through an act of faith. Jesus’ hour has not come, but Jesus never does anything at the wrong time as God’s time is perfect. It is through Mary’s act of faith that it becomes the right time to initiate his public ministry. Just as through Mary’s fiat, when through her faith the entrance of the Savior into the world was determined, so too through her act of faith at Cana she determined the beginning of the work of redemption. Jesus’ response to his mother’s faith is an act of obedience to her. He honors and respects her and he does not deny her the petitions she brings to him.
Also of importance in the Wedding at Cana is that it is Jesus who performs the miracle and Mary who tells the servants to obey him. Mary is never considered equal to Jesus. He alone is God and she is always secondary to him. She does not preach, take credit for Jesus’ actions, or even use many words, she merely directs all to her son. While it true that she advocates on behalf of the couple and brings the request to her son, it is only from him that the couple receives the gift of the miracle of more wine. His primacy should never be ignored.
At Calvary in John 19:26-27, Mary, who was present at the foot of the cross, was given as a gift the all of mankind as a spiritual mother. Some may argue that in his statement to John, Jesus was simply ensuring his mother would be cared for after his death. However, it is highly unlikely that Jesus would not have made plans for his mother prior to the seconds before his agonizing death while he was hanging on a cross. The planning for the care of his mother would not have been a mere afterthought. A better understanding of the Scripture is that because Jesus was in the middle of the universal act of redemption, the gift of his mother is also universal in that it is taking place at the same moment. Again, Jesus does not do anything at the wrong time, so it is better understood that the gift of his mother was part of the divine plan occurring as a universal gift to all mankind during his universal act of salvation. Therefore, his universal gift is a mother who intercedes on behalf of all of her children and brings their needs to her son.
Beyond Scripture, the Catholic Church looks to Tradition to determine the truths about Mary’s role in Christianity. As Dei Verbum explains, Jesus taught the Apostles and entrusted them to hand down all that they had received, leaving bishops in their place to institute a line of succession to continue with the passing down of tradition. Jesus did not hand the Apostles a Bible after his Resurrection, rather he sent them out to teach the knowledge he had given them by. “Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing the in the name of the Father, and of the son, and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.” In those very first years of Christianity, teaching the tradition was the only means by which the faith was passed down. Still today, studying what early Christians believed and practiced helps in understanding current beliefs and practices. It is also reasonable and appropriate to understand that Mary herself was integral in passing on her son’s teachings in the first years of Christianity. For example, the only two beings present at the Annunciation in Luke 1:26-33 were the angel Gabriel and Mary and also in Luke 2:19, it’s written that Mary “kept all these things, reflecting on them in her heart”. The only way the Gospel writers would know of these things is if Mary herself had conveyed the stories to others. Therefore, since Tradition preceded Scripture it remains a valuable resource in determining truth.
Even before the sophisticated development of Marian doctrine and dogma, the early Church had an understanding of Mary as an advocate for her people. An ancient prayer to the mother of Jesus was found on papyrus which dates back to around the year 250 AD called the Suub Tum Praesidium. Its English translation reads:
“We fly to your protection, O Holy Mother of God,
Despise not our petitions in our necessities,
But deliver us from all danger,
O ever glorious and blessed Virgin.”
This prayer was written and prayed during a period of ruthless Christian persecution when early believers truly feared for their lives. In the face of their greatest fears they turned to Mary with complete faith that she could help. Clearly there was an understanding amongst the earliest of Christians that Mary was an advocate for their needs. They turn to the mother in prayer during a time of need and beg her not turn away from their petitions for help. They have complete faith in her abilities and role as Advocate, bringing their petitions to her son for deliverance from danger.
Gregory Nazianzen (d. 390 A.D.) tells a story of a young virgin in one of his sermons. This virgin, Justina, wishes to consecrate herself to Christ and remain chaste, saving her body and soul for him. A man by the name of Cyprian wants Justina for himself and tries with great effort to seduce and tempt her. Justina, realizing her need for protection against the temptations, turns to Mary, “…imploring the Virgin Mary to bring her assistance, since she, too, was a virgin and had been in danger…” However, before she implores the Virgin Mary, Gregory relays that Justina knows who will be providing the help through the petition of Mary, keeping the primacy of Christ at the forefront.
“He is Christ, who strengthens our spirits and raises up those who are drowning;
he hurls the legion of wicked spirits into the abyss; he snatches away the just man
from the pit in which he had been placed as food for lions and, stretching out his
hands, binds the proud; he frees from the whale the fleeing prophet who, even
while inside the whale, had kept the faith. And, in Assyria, he frees the children
from the flames; they are kept cool by an angel, and to the three children a fourth
In this sermon, Gregory is reiterating that it was known and accepted that anyone could bring their needs to Mary and to ask for her help in gaining grace, assistance and miraculous intervention from her son, Jesus.
St. Cyril of Alexandria (d. 444 A.D.) is best known for his role at the Council of Ephesus (431 A.D.) which defined the Marian dogma of Theotokos or “God Bearer”. However, he also recognized the deep sense of obedience Jesus had toward his mother. “Further, Christ shows that the greatest possible honor is owed to parents by the fact that, out of respect for his mother, he decided to work a miracle that he had not wanted to perform.” St. Cyril indicates here that not even God, the son, is above obedience to his mother which would support her intercessory power even to today. If Jesus obeyed her at the Wedding at Cana, to think he would not continue to do so for eternity would be an error.
St. Gregory of Tours (d. 594 A.D.) was the first to compile written accounts of miracles that came about due to the intercession of Mary in a work entitled Libri Miraculorum. While some of the stories are dramatic and perhaps embellished at least a little, the collection illustrates the far reaching and wide-spread devotion early Christians had for Mary. It evident that they had faith that their petitions would be heard and that she would come to their aid through the power of her son .
St. Germanus of Constantinople (d. ca. 733 A.D.) is one of the greatest Marian theologians and is often quoted in Church documents up to the modern day. He stresses the primacy of Christ’s saving power in holding that Mary’s intercession is not necessary, but rather it is appropriate and still advantageous of his people to ask of it. Being humbled by sin against God, it is right to turn to his mother for her compassion and to ask her assistance in obtaining redemption. “For, just as in your son’s presence you have a mother’s boldness and strength, do you with your prayers and intercessions save and rescue us from eternal punishment, for we have been condemned by our sins and do not dare even to lift our eyes to heaven above.”
Another great Marian theologian, St. Bernard of Clairvaux (d 1153 A.D.), wrote a collection of four homilies entitled “In Praise of the Blessed Virgin Mary”. In an introduction to these homilies, Chrysogonus Waddell is quick to examine the word “praise”. He maintains the word was used differently in past ages than it is used today and that the change occurred sometime around the Renaissance. Prior to the Renaissance, the world was very spiritually-centered and as a result of the Renaissance, there was a new emphasis on “man” as the central focus. In the prior sense, “praise” was used for all things in which one experienced God and were therefore worthy of praise. Again, the praise of Mary, or any other praiseworthy creature or thing does not negate the ultimate supremacy of Christ. Praise of Mary is always subordinate to praise of Christ.
In one of his four homilies, Bernard draws upon the image of Stella Maris, or Star of the Sea. Mary was called the Star of the Sea and she was called upon to aid an individual in stormy seas. This image was used literally by sailors and fisherman, but also figuratively in reference to the stormy seas of life. He implores his reader to keep his eyes on the bright star as he is tossed about in the tidal waves of temptation and tribulation. “In dangers, in hardships, in every doubt, think of Mary, call out to Mary. Keep her in your mouth, keep her in your heart. Follow the example of her life and you will obtain the favor of her prayers. Following her, you will never go astray. Asking her help you will never despair.”
St. Louis de Monfort (1673-1716 A.D.) wrote extensively on the need for Marian devotion. In his work True Devotion to Mary, he refers to her intercession for her children the greatest good she offers. He relays the story of Jacob and Isaac in Genesis 27:27 where Isaac recognizes his son by his fragrance, “the fragrance of a field that the Lord has blessed”. St. Louis says Mary, through her grace and merits is that fragrance which is so welcome to the Father. Mary, a child with her own recognizable fragrance is united with the Lord and her intercession for his people is welcomed by him.
The Catholic Church holds that both Scripture and Tradition are sources of divine revelation and work together to pass the truth to her people. “Scripture is the utterance of God as it is set down in writing under the guidance of God’s Spirit; tradition preserves the word of God as it was entrusted to the apostles by Christ our Lord and the Holy Spirit, and transmits it to their successors, so that these in turn, enlightened by the Spirit of truth, may faithfully preserve, expound and disseminate the word by their preaching.” With the sources of divine revelation established, the problem of interpretation arises. If left to individuals to interpret Scripture and Tradition, human error would certainly create an infinite number of possibilities in determining truth which would take away from the universality of the Catholic Church. One of the primary goals of the Catholic Church is to maintain the universality of the faith. Therefore, the teaching office of the Church, the magisterium, is in place to interpret and teach the truth of the faith.
A college of bishops who can trace their succession back to the apostles, headed by the Bishop of Rome, the Pope, who can trace his line of succession back to St. Peter, are responsible for careful study and dialog, guided by the Holy Spirit to determine the truths of Jesus’ teachings. Dr. Scott Hahn provides a relatable picture of the magisterium not as an umpire standing behind plate making calls and judgements, rather the magisterium is “actually the team itself, made up of the episcopal players who trace their spot on the roster back to the original team of Apostles. And as team captain, the Pope leads his fellow bishops, along with the rest of us, who share the ‘sense of the faithful’”.
These discussions and debates in which this team of bishops engage primarily occur at ecumenical councils. The first example of a college of bishops gathering together to determine the will of God in keeping with Jesus’ teaching was at the Council of Jerusalem in Acts 15:1-12. Due to the conversion of large numbers of gentiles, there were differences among the customs of the Jewish Christians versus the Gentile Christians. A council was called in Jerusalem where the apostles and presbyters gathered to debate how to handle the differences in custom. After much debate, guided by the Holy Spirit, Peter stood up and declared the truth as God willed, that the Gentiles should not be forced to adopt Jewish customs. Like the first council in Jerusalem, established in Scripture, the college of bishops has continued to gather regularly in the same manner through the history of the Church to discuss matters of the Church and the interpretation of Scripture. In order to communicate newly defined doctrines and dogmas, the councils and the Pope publish documents called “encyclicals” which are made readily available to the faithful. Once these infallible truths have been proclaimed, it is the job of the magisterium to maintain these truths and serve in a pastoral role, teaching the faithful. This method of teaching and pastoring keeps the Catholic faith universal and avoids erroneous individual interpretations which result in division. The dogmas and doctrines regarding Mary are included in the truths that have been documented as the magisterium has defined and taught her role as Spiritual Mother to all.
Lumen Gentium is a document that was written by the Bishops present at the Second Vatican Council and promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1964. In it is a chapter dedicated to clarifying Mary’s role and relationship to the Church. Mary is defined as a “mother in the order of grace” to the Church as a whole which she merited in the cooperation with God’s will in bringing her son to the world. Just as an earthly mother has her children’s best interest at heart, Mary’s spiritual motherhood is aimed toward bringing her children close to her son, particularly in times of tribulation and peril so clearly expressed in the early prayer, the “Sub Tuum Praesidium” She does this through her roles of “avocate, benefactress, helper and mediatrix”. Lumen Gentium goes on to explain that her position in these roles takes nothing away from the dignity and power of Christ as the one mediator between God and man, rather she serves him subordinately and brings glory to his mediation. Just as she did at Cana, through her intercession for the needs of the people, she always directs the attention to her son and not to herself. “Do whatever he tells you.”
As we see in 1 Peter 2:5, all are called to participate in the priesthood of Christ and to mediate Christ to others. As his mother, Mary occupies the primary seat in the line of the priesthood of Christ. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, a teaching tool of the magisterium, confirms that since the time of Abraham, intercessory prayer has been used to obtain God’s mercy for others. It explains “In intercession, he who prays looks ‘not only to his own interests, but also to the interests of others,’ even to the point of praying for those who do him harm.” If the faithful are called to intercede for one another and advocate for the needs of others, it is not a far stretch to ask Mary, his mother with whom he lived for 30 years, for her own intercessory prayers.
The Second Vatican Council is not the first place Mary’s role as advocate was proclaimed. Teachings have come from the magisterium regarding Mary as advocate since the Sixteenth Century and have been most thoroughly developed in the last two centuries. Pope Pius IX, in his document Ineffablilis Deus, which defines the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, states,
“And since she has been appointed by God to be the Queen of heaven and earth, and is exalted above all the choirs of angels and saints, and even stands at the right hand of her only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ our Lord, she presents our petitions in a most efficacious manner. What she asks, she obtains. Her pleas can never be unheard.”
Contained within this one concise statement on intercessory power is the imagery from Bathsheba in 1 Kings, the Annunciation in Luke 1, the Wedding Feast at Cana in John 2 and the Queen of Revelations 12:1. Again, while maintaining the office of Queen she remains subordinate to her son, sitting at his right hand, but in a position of obtaining favors for his people through her unparalleled relationship with him.
Pope Pius XI in his encyclical letter, Miserentissimus Redemptor says, “trusting in her intercession with Christ our Lord, who though sole Mediator between God and man, wished however to make his mother advocate for sinners.” In this statement, it is clear that Jesus gave his mother as a gift to his people and that her advocacy is intended as sign of his compassion for the needs of the people. In his universal act of redemption for all on the cross at Calvary, he gave the universal gift of his mother to all, “Behold your mother.”
The Catholic understanding of Mary’s role in the history of salvation can be a difficult hurdle for some. The primary obstacle for those who struggle with Marian doctrines and dogmas is that they equate honor and love for her as of being equal to the devotion that should be due to her son alone. However, when understood correctly as the magisterium intends, proper devotion to Mary should bring greater glory to her son. “She no more steals the son’s glory than the moon steals the sun’s” “Mary is not God, but she is the mother of God. She is only a creature; but she is God’s greatest creation…To affirm the truth about Mary would not detract from Jesus, although not to affirm it could.” In asking her to intercede and advocate on one’s behalf, it is acknowledging that by the very nature of her advocacy, the gift is not coming from her, rather it is coming from her son through her. To deny his mother’s role in the Church is to deny his gift given in the final moments of his life at Calvary. Mary’s goal is to bring about the salvation of all people, based on her “yes” which brought the Savior to the world. Just like the couple of Cana, her intercession and advocacy brings about the best wine which is ultimately achieved in eternal salvation.
Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition. Vatican City. 2007.
Gambero, Luigi, S.M., Mary and the Fathers of the Church: The Blessed Virgin Mary in Patristic Thought. Translated by Thomas Buffer. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1999.
Manelli, Stefano M. All Generations Shall Call Me Blessed: Biblical Mariology. New Bedford: Academy of the Immaculate, 1995.
Miravalle, Mark. Introduction to Mary: The Heart of Marian Doctrine and Devotion. Goleta: Queenship Publishing, 2006.
Miravalle, Mark, edit. Mariology: A guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians and Consecrated Persons. Goleta: Seat of Wisdom Books, 2007.
Miravalle, Mark. Mary: Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate. Santa Barbara: Queenship Publishing, 1993.
Miravalle, Mark. Meet Your Mother: A Brief Introduction to Mary. Sycamore: Lighthouse Catholic Media, 2014.
Miravalle, Mark, edit. Contemporary Insights on a Fifth Marian Dogma: Mary Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate: Theological Foundations Volume 3. Goleta: Queenship Publishing, 2000.
New American Bible, Student Edition. World Catholic Press, 1987.
Paul VI. Dei Verbum. Vatican City: Liberia Editrice Vaticana, 1965.
Paul VI. Lumen Gentium. Vatican City: Liberia Editrice Vaticana, 1964.
St. Louis de Montfort. True Devotion to Mary. Translated by Father Frederick Faber. Rockford: Tan Books and Publishers, Inc, 1985.
Sheen, Bishop Fulton, The World’s First Love. Accessed 3/14/2016, http://www.catholictradition.org/Mary/cana.htm.
Sri, Edward. Queen Mother: A Biblical Theology of Mary’s Queenship. Steubenville: Emmaus Road Publishing, 2005.
Waddell, Chrysogonus. Introduction to Homilies in Praise of the Blessed Virgin Mary, by Bernard of Clairvaux, Translated by Marie-Bernard Said, xi-xii. Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1993.
 Mark Miravalle, Meet Your Mother: A Brief Introduction to Mary (Sycamore: Lighthouse Catholic Media, 2014), 66-67.
 New American Bible, Student Edition (World Catholic Press, 1987), 1 Kings 2:19-20.
 Edward Sri, Queen Mother: A Biblical Theology of Mary’s Queenship (Steubenville: Emmaus Road Publishing, 2005), 67-68
 New American Bible, Luke 1:31-32
 New American Bible, Luke 1:43
 Mark Miravalle, S.T.D., edit. Mariology: A guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians and Consecrated Persons. (Goleta: Seat of Wisdom Books, 2007), 477-478.
 Sri, Queen Mother, 90.
 Mark Miravalle, Introduction to Mary: The Heart of Marian Doctrine and Devotion. (Goleta: Queenship Publishing, 2006), 35.
 Sheen, The World’s First Love.
 Stefano M. Manelli, F.F.I., All Generations Shall Call Me Blessed: Biblical Mariology, (New Bedford: Academy of the Immaculate, 1995), 299.
 Manelli, All Generations Shall Call Me Blessed, 326.
 Pope Paul VI, Dei Verbum, (Vatican City: Liberia Editrice Vaticana, 1965), #7.
 New American Bible, Matthew 28:19-20.
 Mark I. Miravalle, S.T.D., Mary: Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate. (Santa Barbara: Queenship Publishing, 1993), 57.
 Luigi Gambero, S.M., Mary and the Fathers of the Church: The Blessed Virgin Mary in Patristic Thought. Trans. Thomas Buffer (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1999), 166-167
 Gambero, Mary and the Fathers of the Church, 245.
 Ibid. 352ff
 Ibid. 388
 Chrysogonus Waddell, introduction to Homilies in Praise of the Blessed Virgin Mary by Bernard of Clairvaux, trans. Marie-Bernard Said (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1993), xi-xii.
 Bernard of Clairvaux, Homilies in Praise of the Blessed Virgin Mary, trans. Marie-Bernard Said (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1993), 30.
 St. Louis de Montfort, True Devotion to Mary, trans. Father Frederick Faber, (Rockford: Tan Books and Publishers, Inc, 1985), 211-212.
 Pope Paul VI, Dei Verbum, #9.
 Mark Miravalle, edit., Contemporary Insights on a Fifth Marian Dogma: Mary Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate: Theological Foundations Volume 3. (Goleta: Queenship Publishing, 2000), 175.
 Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition. (Vatican City, 2007), 880-892.
 Pope Paul VI. Lumen Gentium. (Vatican City: Liberia Editrice Vaticana, 1964), #61.
 Ibid., #62.
 Ibid., #62.
 New American Bible, John 2:5.
 Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2635.
 Mark I. Miravalle, S.T.D., Mary: Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate, 64.
 Piux IX, Ineffablilis Deus, (Vatican City: Liberia Editrice Vaticana, 1854).
 Mark I. Miravalle, S.T.D., Mary: Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate, 64.
 New American Bible, John 19:27.
 Mark Miravalle, edit., Contemporary Insights on a Fifth Marian Dogma, 170.
 Ibid., 171